What is vulvar cancer?

Vulvar cancer can start in any part of the external female sex organs (genitals). It most commonly develops in the labia minora, the labia majora, and the perineum. Less often, it involves the clitoris, mons pubis or Bartholin glands.

How common is vulvar Cancer?

Vulvar cancer is not common – each year in Australia, about 390 women are diagnosed with vulvar cancer. Although it most commonly affects women who have gone through menopause – diagnoses of vulvar cancer in women under 60 have increased in recent years. This is likely to be due to the rising rates of infection with HPV.

Risk factors

The exact cause of vulvar cancer is unknown, but there are several things that increase the risk of developing it.


There are often few obvious symptoms of early vulvar cancer. The cancer is commonly diagnosed after a history of vulvar symptoms over several months or years. These may include:

  • Itching, burning and soreness or pain in the vulva
  • A lump, sore, swelling or wart-like growth on the vulva
  • Thickened, raised skin patches (may be red, white or dark brown)
  • A mole on the vulva that changes shape or colour
  • Blood, pus or other discharge coming from an area of skin or sore spot in the vulva, which may have an offensive or unusual smell or colour (not related to your menstrual period)
  • An ulcer that won’t heal
  • Hard or swollen lymph nodes in the groin area.

Some symptoms are obvious, while others need to be touched or seen. Most people don’t look at their vulva, so they don’t know what is normal for them. The vulva can be difficult to see without a mirror, and some people feel uncomfortable examining their genitals. If you feel any pain in your genital area or notice any of these symptoms, visit your general practitioner (GP) for a check-up.


The main tests used to diagnose vulvar cancer are a physical examination, a procedure called a colposcopy and most importantly the removal of a tissue sample (biopsy). Because vulvar cancer is sometimes associated with cervical and vaginal cancer, the doctor may check for abnormal cells in the vagina and cervix.

  • Physical examination
  • Colposcopy
  • Biopsy – removal of a tissue sample
  • Cervical Screening Test

Sometimes further tests are needed to assess your general health, determine the size and position of the cancer, and find out whether the cancer has spread. You will probably not need to have all of these tests:

Waiting for the test results can be a stressful time. It may help to talk to a friend or family member, a healthcare professional, or call Cancer Council on 13 11 20.


Vulvar cancer usually takes many years to develop but, like other types of cancer, it is easier to treat and cure at an early stage. Treatment may involve surgeryradiation therapy and chemotherapy. You may have one of these treatments or a combination.

The treatment recommended by your doctor will depend on the results of your tests, the type of cancer, where the cancer is, whether it has spread, your age and your general health. You’ll have regular check-ups to see whether the cancer has responded to treatment.


Prognosis means the expected outcome of a disease. You may wish to discuss your prognosis and treatment options with your doctor, but it is not possible for anyone to predict the exact course of the disease. Instead, your doctor can give you an idea about the general prognosis for people with the same type and stage of vulvar cancer.

In most cases, the earlier the vulvar cancer is diagnosed, the better the chances of successful treatment. To work out your prognosis, your doctor will consider your tests results; the type of vulvar cancer you have; the stage and grade of the cancer, whether the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes; and other factors such as your age, fitness and overall health. In most cases, the doctor will not have enough information to assess the prognosis until after surgery to remove the cancer.

Discussing your prognosis and thinking about the future can be challenging and stressful. It may help to talk with family and friends. You can also call Cancer Council 13 11 20 if you need more information or emotional support.

Support for Queenslanders

Whether you have been diagnosed with Vulvar cancer, or have a family member or friend who is affected by cancer, there are times when you may need support. Our professional services and support programs are here to help you.

Find out more about:

Phone support
Email support
Cancer counselling
Practical and financial support
Support groups
Information sessions

You don’t have to face cancer alone – we’re here to help.


For more information on vulvar cancer please see these resources