Search: hormone replacement therapy (HRT)

palliative treatment

Medical treatment for people with advanced cancer to help them manage pain and other physical and emotional symptoms of cancer. Treatment may include radiation therapy, chemotherapy or other medication. It is an important part of palliative care.


A type of three-dimensional radiation therapy that allows the radiation beams to be shaped around a tumour more precisely.

targeted therapies

…or other substances to selectively target proteins or other molecules involved in cancer cell growth. Two types of targeted therapies are drug therapies and immunotherapies. Chemotherapy or radiation therapy affects all cells, but targeted therapies avoid damage to normal cells….

stereotactic radiosurgery

Highly focused, precisely targeted radiation therapy done as a single day treatment.


Energy in the form of waves or particles, including gamma rays, x-rays and ultraviolet (UV) rays. This energy is harmful to cells and is used in radiation therapy to destroy cancer cells.

multileaf collimators

Moveable pieces of metal built into the head of radiation therapy machines to shield normal tissue and organs from the radiation beam.

ovarian ablation

Stopping the ovaries from producing oestrogen, which is done surgically (oopherectomy) or with radiation therapy.

osteoradionecrosis (ORN)

A breakdown of bone tissue due to radiation therapy treatment.

linear accelerator

A machine used in external radiation therapy to treat cancer.


The prevention or treatment of disease using substances that alter the immune system’s response. This is a type of biological therapy.