Search: red blood cells


A blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart.

central venous access device (CVAD)

A type of thin plastic tube inserted into a vein. The CVAD gives access to a vein so blood or chemotherapy can be given, and blood can be taken. Types of CVADs include central lines, Hickman lines, peripherally inserted central…


The basic units of the kidney that filter the blood. Nephrons also regulate blood volume, pressure and pH and levels of electrolytes and metabolites….

granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)

A protein that helps increase the bone marrow production of certain white blood cells called neutrophils, which fight infection.

Breast Cancer

Cancer starts when cells begin to grow out of control. Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer, and can spread to other areas of the body. To learn more about how all cancers start and spread,…

Skin Cancer

…but can occur anywhere on the body. Skin has several layers. Skin cancer begins in the epidermis (outer layer), which is made up of squamous cells, basal cells, and melanocytes. There are several different types of skin cancer. Squamous cell…


Chemical messengers in the body that send information between cells and control the actions of certain cells and organs.

oestrogen receptor positive (ER+)

Breast cancer cells that have a receptor protein to which oestrogen will attach. Breast cancer cells that are ER+ depend on the hormone oestrogen to grow….

progesterone receptor positive (PR+)

Breast cancer cells that have a receptor protein to which progesterone will attach. Breast cancer cells that are PR+ depend on the hormone progesterone to grow….


Energy in the form of waves or particles, including gamma rays, x-rays and ultraviolet (UV) rays. This energy is harmful to cells and is used in radiation therapy to destroy cancer cells.