Search: red blood cells


A type of radiation therapy treatment that implants radioactive material sealed in needles or seeds into or near cancerous cells. Also called internal radiation therapy.

fine needle aspiration (FNA)

A biopsy procedure in which a fine needle is placed into a lump to extract cells.

cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)

Abnormal changes in the surface layers of the cervix. These changes are not cancer but are precancerous cells. Also called dysplasia.


The use of cytotoxic drugs to treat cancer by killing cancer cells or slowing their growth. Chemotherapy can also be used to reduce the size of the cancer and help lessen the pain. It may be given in combination with…

clear margin

When the surrounding tissue removed during surgery does not contain any cancer cells.


The process of inserting a probe into a cancerous tumour to freeze and destroy cancer cells. Sometimes called cryosurgery.


A substance (e.g. chemotherapy) that is toxic to cells.

ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)

Abnormal cells in the breast ducts that may increase the risk of developing invasive breast cancer.


The cells lining the cervical canal.

epithelial abnormality

Changes in the cells of the cervix.